Rublo 1726 II / Рубль 1726 II

Enlace a mi tienda en ebid. Iré subiendo más moneditas de mi colección

https://stores.ebid.net/moneditis

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Aquí   https://moneditis.com/2019/03/25/rublo-1726-рубль-1726/ ya hablaba sobre un rublo de Catalina I

Peso teórico: 28,44 g de plata Ag .729 Diámetro 41 mm

Retrato del grabador danés Anton Schultz

Anverso: ЕКАТЕРИНА• IМПЕРАТРIЦА• IСАМОДЕРЖИЦА• ВСЕРОСIСКАЯ

Reverso: МОНЕТА* НОВАЯ* ЦЕНА* РУБЛЬ•1726

Acuñada en Moscú, en la Casa de la Moneda Kadashevsky

La diferencia entre uno y otro rublo se encuentra en la cola del águila bicéfala del reverso (comparar en el enlace de arriba)

Canto

россискоi рубль ея i в (императорского величества) московского двора

Retrato a izquierda. En la cabeza aparece una corona sobre la cinta del pelo de la zarina y en el pecho estrella de orden militar sobre armadura.

En Moscú, la acuñación de moneda de plata se lleva a cabo exclusivamente en la ceca de Kadashevsky. No hay datos sobre ensayadores, maestros de balanza y otros trabajadores de esta Casa de la Moneda moscovita. El 13 de julio de 1724 se firmó contrato por seis años con el medallista Danés Anton Schultz, que trabaja hasta 1736.

Por esta moneda se pagaron casi 1.000 euros.

Catálogo Konros Nº 50/6

Aquí rublo también de 1726 pero de cobre. Pesa 1.638 g de nada. Para llevarlo en el bolsillo 🙂

Subtítulos sólo en ruso

P.S.  https://coinsweekly.com/how-to-detect-counterfeits-at-all-times-part-3-british-sovereigns/

Al final del artículo, referencias a otras falsificaciones / detalles técnicos

https://goldsovereignexpert.com/

https://goldsovereigns.co.uk/

8 reales Carlos IV Vico lotes ¿cruz?

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https://stores.ebid.net/moneditis

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No por casualidad el título de esta entrada

https://moneditis.com/2020/11/05/8-reales-carlos-iv-ibercoin-lotes-cruz/

En esta subasta de Vico también vemos unos cuantos lotes de similares características

Lot 319          Starting Price: 330 EUR
CARLOS IV. Lote 11 monedas de 8 reales de Lima diferentes, uno con contramarca M.. BC+/MBC.

https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=lot&sid=4470&lot=319

Lot 320    Starting Price: 420 EUR
CARLOS IV. Lote 14 monedas de 8 reales de México diferentes. BC+/MBC.
No leo pesos/masas ni ningún otro detalle más que genéricas descripciones y conservaciones.
Los detalles sobre el procedimiento y características de la subasta de Vico son similares a los del enlace superior, referido a Ibercoin
Lot 321         Starting Price: 500 EUR
CARLOS IV. Lote de 16 moneda de 8 reales de Potosí diferentes, 2 con resellos chinos. BC+/MBC.
¿Lotes comparables? ¿Algo que aprender a la vista de tanto lote de 8 reales Carlos IV a la venta?

SLV reddit wallstreetbets TheHappyHawaiian silver futures

Enlace a mi tienda en ebid. Iré subiendo más moneditas de mi colección

https://stores.ebid.net/moneditis

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En reddit hay movimiento con ciertas acciones yankees (GameStop (GME), BB…); parece que ha llegado el momento de la plata 😀

https://www.reddit.com/r/wallstreetbets/comments/l6novm/the_real_dd_on_slv_the_worlds_biggest_short/

The real DD on SLV, the worlds biggest short squeeze is possible and we can make history
Here is the longer DD for the short squeeze case for SLV, a follow-up from my shorter post a few hours ago. Note that I talk in first person as this is something I’m going to do. Everyone is free to do as they individually please and copy my trade if they’d like to. I think it’s absurd that forces at be think this forum is manipulating by posting publicly but that’s where we are at right now.

First things first, I’m not doing this until the GME rise is done. I am long GME but am going long SLV immediately after.

If you just want to know what to buy skip to the end

I present 2 investment DDs in this post, the short squeeze and the fundamentals. If you want to see what to buy

The short squeeze:

Buy SLV shares (or PSLV shares) and SLV call options to force physical delivery of silver to the SLV vaults.

The silver futures market has oscillated between having roughly 100-1 and 500-1 ratio of paper traded silver to physical silver, but lets call it 250-1 for now. This means that for every 250 ounces in open interest in the futures market, only 1 actually gets delivered. Most traders would rather settle with cash rather than take delivery of thousands of ounces of silver and have to figure out to store and transport it in the future.

The people naked shorting silver via the futures markets are a couple of large banks and making them pay dearly for their over leveraged naked shorts would be incredible. It’s not Melvin capital on the other side of this trade, its JP Morgan. Time to get some payback for the bailouts and manipulation they’ve done for decades (look up silver manipulation fines that JPM has paid over the years).

The way the squeeze could occur is by forcing a much higher percentage of the futures contracts to actually deliver physical silver. There is very little silver in the COMEX vaults or available to actually be use to deliver, and if they have to start buying en masse on the open market they will drive the price massively higher. There is no way to magically create more physical silver in the world that is ready to be delivered. With a stock you can eventually just issue more shares if the price rises too much, but this simply isn’t the case here. The futures market is kind of the wild west of the financial world. Real commodities are being traded, and if you are short, you literally have to deliver thousands of ounces of silver per contract if the holder on the other side demands it. If you remember oil going negative back in May, that was possible because futures are allowed to trade to their true value. They aren’t halted and that’s what will make this so fun when the true squeeze happens.

Edit for more detail: let’s say there’s one futures seller who gets unlucky and gets the buyer who actually wants to take delivery. He doesn’t have the silver and realizes it’s all of a sudden damn difficult to find some physical silver. He throws up his hands and just goes long a matching number of futures contracts and will demand actual delivery on those. Problem solved because he has now matched the demanding buyer with a new seller. The issue is that the new seller has the same issue and does the exact same thing. This is how the cascade effect of a meltup occurs. All the naked shorts trying to offload their position to someone who actually has some silver. My goal is to ensure that I have the silver and won’t sell to them until silver is at a far higher price due to the desperation.

The silver market is much larger than GME in terms of notional value, but there is very little physical silver actually readily available (think about the difference between total shares and the shares in the active float for a stock), and the paper silver trading hands in the futures market is hundreds of times larger than what is available. Thus when they are forced to actually deliver physical silver it will create a massive short squeeze where an absurd amount of silver will be sought after (to fulfill their contractually obligated delivery) with very little available to actually buy. They are naked shorting silver and will have to cover all at once and the float as a percentage of the total silver stock globally is truly minuscule.

 

The fundamentals:

The current gold to silver ratio is 73-1. Meaning the price of gold per ounce is 73 times the price of silver. Naturally occurring silver is only 18.75 times as common as gold, so this ratio of 73-1 is quite high. Until the early 20th century, silver prices were pegged at a 15-1 ratio to gold in the US because this ratio was relatively known even then. In terms of current production, the ratio is even lower at 8-1. Meaning the world is only producing 8 ounces of silver for each newly produced ounce of gold.

Global industry has been able to get away with producing so little new silver for so long because governments have dumped silver on the market for 80 years, but now their silver vaults are empty. At the end of WW2 government vaults globally contained 10 billion ounces of silver, but as we moved to fiat currency and away from precious metal backed currencies, the amount held by governments has decreased to only 0.24 billion ounces as they dumped their supply into the market. But this dumping is done now as their remaining supply is basically nil.

This 0.24 billion ounces represents only 8% of the total supply of only 3 billion ounces stored as investment globally. This means that 92% of that gold is held privately by institutions and by millions of boomer gold and silver bugs who have been sitting on meager gains for decades. These boomers aren’t going to sell no matter what because they see their silver cache as part of their doomsday prepper supplies. It’s locked away in bunkers they built 500 miles from their house. Also, with silver at $23 an ounce currently, this means all of the worlds investment grade silver only has a total market cap of $70 billion. For comparison the investment grade gold in the world is worth roughly $6 trillion. This is because most of the silver produced each year actually gets used, as I have mentioned. $70 billion sounds like a lot, but we don’t have to buy all that much for the price to go up a lot.

**If the squeeze happens, it would be like 40 years worth of their gains in 4 months **

The reason that only 8 ounces of silver are produced for every 1 ounce of gold in today’s world is because there aren’t really any good naturally occurring silver deposits left in the world. Silver is more common than gold in the earth’s crust, but it is spread very thin. Thus nearly every ounce of silver produces is actually a byproduct of mining for other metals such as gold or copper. This means that even as the silver price skyrockets, it wont be easy to increase the supply of silver being produced. Even if new mines were to be constructed, it could take years to come online.

Finally, most of this newly created silver supply each year is used for productive purposes rather than kept for investment. It is used in electronics, solar panels, and jewelry for the most part. This demand wont go away if the silver price rises, so the short sellers will be trying to get their hands on a very small slice of newly minted silver. The solar market is also growing quickly and political pressure to increase solar and electric vehicles could provide more industrial demand.

The other part of the story is the faster moving piece and that is the inflation and currency debasement fear portion. The government and the fed are printing money like crazy debasing the value of the dollar, so investors look for real assets like precious metals to hide out in, driving demand for silver. The $1.9 trillion stimulus passing in a month or two could be a good catalyst. All this money combined with the reopening of the economy could cause some solid inflation to occur, and once inflation starts it often feeds on itself.

https://moneditis.com/tag/plata/

 

What to buy:

I will be putting 50% directly into SLV shares, and 50% into the $35 strike SLV calls expiring 4/16. This way the SLV purchase creates a groundswell into silver immediately that then rockets through a gamma squeeze as SLV approaches $35. Price target of $75 for SLV by end of April if the short squeeze happens.

Edit: for the part of your purchases going into shares, some people recommend PSLV because they think SLV might start lying about having the silver in their vault. Or that the custodian will be double counting, ie claiming that the same silver belongs to multiple people (banking on the fact that people wont all try to get their silver at once). So if you buy SLV shares and calls, that’s great. But I think it could be prudent for us to buy options in SLV (no options on PSLV) and shares in PSLV. It all depends on how paranoid you want to be. There is a lot of paranoia in the precious metals world.

Alternate options:

– buying physical silver; this also works but you pay a premium to buy and sell so its less efficient and you take fewer silver ounces off of the market because of the premium you pay

– going long futures for February or March; if you are a rich bastard and can actually take physical delivery of 1000s of ounces of silver by all means do so. But if you simply settle for cash you are actually part of the problem. We need actual physical delivery, which is what SLV demands and is why SLV is the way to go unless you are going to take delivery

– miners; I don’t recommend buying miners as part of this trade. Miners will absolutely go up if SLV goes up, but buying them doesn’t create the squeeze in the actual silver market. Furthermore, most silver miners only derive 30-50% of their revenue from silver anyways, so eventually SLV will outperform them as it gets high enough (and each marginal SLV dollar only increases miner profits by a smaller and smaller percentage)

Details on SLV physical settlement:

When SLV issues shares, the custodian is forced to true up their vaults with the proportional amount of silver daily. From the SLV prospectus:

“An investment in Shares is: Backed by silver held by the Custodian on behalf of the Trust. The Shares are backed by the assets of the Trust. The Trustee’s arrangements with the Custodian contemplate that at the end of each business day there can be in the Trust account maintained by the Custodian no more than 1,100 ounces of silver in an unallocated form. The bulk of the Trust’s silver holdings is represented by physical silver, identified on the Custodian’s or, if applicable, sub-custodian’s, books in allocated and unallocated accounts on behalf of the Trust and is held by the Custodian in London, New York and other locations that may be authorized in the future.”

Join me brothers. Lets take silver to the moon and take on the biggest and baddest manipulators in the world. Please post rocket emojis in the comments as desired.

Disclaimer: do your own research, make your own decisions, everything here is a guess and hypothetical and nothing is guaranteed, not a financial advisor, I have ADHD and maybe other things too.

Bear case: silver does tend to sell off if the broader market plunges so it’s not immune to broad market sell off. It’s also the most manipulated market in the world so we are facing some tough competition on the short side

Algunos comentarios curiosos

SS3Brotenks 15 hours agoEureka!Silver

Melvin is one thing. Fucking with JPM is another. They’ll buy reddit and nuke it from the internet.

Q_DOOKERMAN15 hours agoGoldJPM will literally make all of Reddit illegal and have all 3 million people on this sub arrested and put in jail before they let us take em to the cleaners on this
Not surprising from a corp that admitted to manipulating markets and payed out $920b for their wrongdoing. When you can afford to lose $920b and keep on going, you’re running on evil not fumes
I didnt read any of that but silver is a buy simply on the money printing that’s been going on alone. It will 🚀🚀🚀🚀🚀 whether it gets any traction here or not. Might as well jump aboard.
100% agree with you for post-GME. I’m an old balls millennial who started learning about the massive Silver manipulation right around 2008. In 2010 I think it spiked again to almost $50 then got crushed down by JPM.

I was thinking earlier this week that if the autists got ahold of SLV it would be lights out for JPM…. Which I don’t know is a good thing… You know, like anarchy in the streets when the worlds largest bank folds…

ahhh yes
bunker tons of silver in my yard
understood
We have the whole financial media industry trying to silence us and campaigning for SEC/legal action because we are winning against Melvin, a company rarely in headlines or big discussion before all of this.

Op wants to take on jPM who has all but been caught red handed (allegedly)manipulating the silver trade before. We will have actual gestapo coming for us.

I’m not saying individuals shouldn’t do this, I’m saying use a VPN and use your gme money to purchase a ticket the moon for safety first.

Man I pray for this day! Honestly pray. They have manipulated gold and silver for years and years. JP Morgan ours $1b in fines this year and laughs it of. This would break a whole system way way way more than GME
Do you know how powerful it’s gonna feel to seriously move the price of silver?
This really gonna happen at every possible oppurtunity? At this rate r/wallstreetbets will overtake the giants and literally control the US economy by 2030
Manipulation of physical precious metal markets has happened before and I don’t recall it ending well. The government or the banks are vested in suppressing the price. This would be a step up in our crusaded against the big boys. That said, you son of a bitch, I’m in.
Is it crazy to try and get everyone to buy physical?
SlV calls bought yesterday before close up 700%!! Slv March 19 $30
YOU SERVED THE DESSERT BEFORE WE EVEN FINISHED THE ENTREE. NEXT WEEK
User avatar
DO YOU RETARDS KNOW WHAT THAT MEANS?312 million ounces are naked short.
This isn’t a stock so there will be no offering. Or they’ll have to dig it out of the fucking ground. This is a real short squeeze. AMC issued 96 million more shares yesterday. I’m not saying anything wrong with that, it will keep them in business. But this is pure short squeeze, there will be no way to weasel out of this.
TO THE MOON.
This has the potential to ruin the whole financial system and possibly create a recession… I’m in! 🙌
Great DD! Often silver is inadvertently thrown away rather than being recycled like gold. And as you mentioned, a lot silver is obtained through the mining of copper rather than actual silver mines proper.
COMEX or CBOT for straight futures contracts. This could actually be a thing in the SLV ETF. If Stonks do start to crack precious metals are a flight to safety trade and if inflation numbers start to come in hot silver would have some tailwinds. Gold has already printed fresh highs in comparison to silver from the last big ramp in 2011.
One more thing OP forgot to mention. Once everything reopens and the velocity of money goes up again, inflation will pick up and exceed 2.5%. Once this happens people will start buying silver for sure. Buy and hold silver until everything is reopened! 🚀🚀🚀

Probablemente esto no sea más que un pump & dump de libro, pero ¿y si…? (We, the people…)  😉

Todos a comprar unas moneditas de plata…a ver si el delivery del COMEX se queda seco, jeje

P.S. Parece que dos grandes “dealers” se van quedando sin existencias y/o esperan que mañana lunes (esta noche abre la negociación en Asia) abra el mercado papel con un “gap” (hueco) al alza importante 

https://www.apmex.com/

Due to unprecedented demand on physical silver products, we are unable to accept any additional orders on a large number of products, until global markets open Sunday evening.

https://www.jmbullion.com/

Attention Customers: Due to increased order volume, we are currently experiencing shipping delays of 5-10 days from cleared payment.

P.S. II  Un par de artículos referentes al tema de cabecera

https://www.zerohedge.com/commodities/von-greyerz-paper-silver-toxic

https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2021-02-03/reddit-residue-silver-3-february

Christmas Scrooge Crown Dickens

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https://stores.ebid.net/moneditis

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Llega la Navidad…Adiós 2020.

Ascension Island – Christmas Scrooge Crown to Commemorate the 150th Anniversary of Charles Dickens in Proof Sterling Silver

Coin Specifications

Metal: Proof Sterling Silver; Cupro Nickel
Diameter: 38.60 mm
Weight: 28.28 g
Issue Limit: Silver: 2,000; CuNi: 10,000

https://coinweek.com/world-coins/new-crown-coin-commemorates-150th-anniversary-of-dickens-christmas-carol/

https://www.pobjoy.com/ascension-island-christmas-scrooge-crown-to-commemorate-the-150th-anniversary-of-charles-dickens-in-proof-sterling-silver

A Christmas Carol está ambientado en la City de Londres durante un día «frío, desapacible, cortante y con niebla» de Nochebuena. Está estructurado en cinco capítulos denominados «estrofas», de los cuales tres hacen referencia a los encuentros de los «fantasmas de la Navidad» —pasadopresente y futuro— con Ebenezer Scrooge, un anciano avaro y egoísta que desprecia todo lo relacionado con la Navidad.

https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Christmas_Carol

P.S. Interesante coloquio radiofónico económico-metalero-energético

https://www.rankia.com/blog/llinares/4753686-grabacion-coloquio-steelman1234-fernan2-que-suscribe

https://www.ivoox.com/coloquio-un-nuevo-orden-mundial-ante-la-audios-mp3_rf_57662975_1.html

¡Casi tres (3) horas de nada!  🙂

fakes gold & silver coins

Enlace a mi tienda en ebid. Iré subiendo más moneditas de mi colección

https://stores.ebid.net/moneditis

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Saliendo del 2020…aunque hasta el rabo todo es toro

Otros enlaces relacionados con el tema de cabecera…

https://moneditis.com/2020/09/18/most-counterfeited-u-s-and-world-coins/

https://moneditis.com/2020/08/09/mas-falsas-monedas/

Un par de páginas de empresa tecnológica que vende “aparataje” para detección de falsas (monedas y/o lingotes de metales preciosos) donde nos muestra variados ejemplos de timo metálico.

http://aurotest.de/counterfeit_silver.htm

http://aurotest.de/counterfeit_gold.htm

http://www.aurotest.de/news.htm

Mi alemán es prácticamente inexistente pero el traductor ayuda bastante

P.S. https://www.numismaticnews.net/article/record-silver-shortage-in-2020

“…The forecasted combined net result of physical supply and demand is a 2020 surplus of 31.5 million ounces. However, that figure is not the bottom line. In 2020, it looks like net investment in exchange-traded products (especially exchange-traded funds like SLV) will reach 350 million ounces. When you factor in this demand, which is touted as physical demand, but may be largely on paper), the net silver shortage for 2020 could be 318.50 million ounces!…”

 

Subastas Reales Rusas

Enlace a mi tienda en ebid. Iré subiendo más moneditas de mi colección

https://stores.ebid.net/moneditis

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Noviembre es un mes intercalado entre octubre y diciembre…de paso, por el medio… por lo que voy a echar un vistazo a las subastas de Sedwick y Konros, USA y Rusia, a falta de nada mejor que hacer… numismáticamente hablando  🙂  Añadir que, por la cercanía de la Navidad, todos los años desde hace unos cuantos, siempre hay una gran concentración de subastas por estas fechas; mera política comercial.

https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=sale&sid=4266

https://auction.sedwickcoins.com/auctionlist.aspx

Multitud de lingotes, macuquinas, peluconas, galanos, onzas…

https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=lot&sid=4266&lot=21

Mexico City, Mexico, cob 8 escudos Royal (galano), 1713J, extremely rare, NGC MS 66, finest and only example graded by NGC, ex-1715 Fleet (designated on special label). S-M30; Cal-2194; KM-R57.1. 27.03 grams. From the 1715 Fleet (Corrigan’s site), pictured on the cover of the November-December 1998 issue of Treasure Quest (a copy of which is included), with Fisher photo-certificate #42933, ex-Rudman. NGC #5909759-001.

Without question, the pinnacle of Spanish colonial coinage is the Mexican 8 escudos Royal (galano), a coin so large and beautiful and perfect as to be considered among the most desirable gold coins in the world. These 8 escudos Royals are quite rare, currently represented by just over 40 specimens across about a dozen dates within the 53-year span in which Mexico made gold cobs (1680-1732). There is no mistaking these special coins; while some regular cob issues come close (normally they are chunky and misshapen) and even some regular-planchet issues were struck with Royal dies (arguably trial or test strikes), only true Royals are perfectly round and evenly struck on planchets of uniform thickness, not to mention that they were generally struck with obverse and reverse in medallic alignment (the present specimen actually rotated 90 degrees, but still oriented with cross aligned). These are formal presentation pieces, to be sure, but the exact purpose of Royals remains unknown, the details behind their commission apparently missing in archival records beyond simple line-item figures labeled “galanos.” While some dates of 8 escudos Royals today are represented by multiple specimens (the most abundant being 1702, 1711 and 1714) others are extremely rare or even unique. The date 1713 is in fact among the rarest, with only two known, the specimen offered here being the finer of the two and the only one graded by NGC. In terms of condition and quality of strike, we feel it is also among the finest of all the known dates.

Like the majority of known 8 escudos Royals, this coin was recovered from the wreckage of the Spanish Plate Fleet of 1715, eleven ships sunk on the reefs off the east coast of Florida in a hurricane in July 1715. It was actually two fleets, the combined Tierra Firme Fleet coming from Cartagena loaded with Peruvian and Colombian treasures, and the New Spain Fleet coming from Mexico with freshly minted coins and Asian jewels from the Manila Galleon trade, united in Havana for the northeasterly trip back to Spain. What had been an annual system of shipping to and from the New World was delayed for many years by the War of Spanish Succession after Charles II’s death in 1700, causing the treasure to pile up in Mexico and Colombia. Spain desperately needed this wealth back home and could not wait for the Fleet to delay any longer when it finally left Havana in July, evidently right into the path of a hurricane. There were many survivors, who encamped on the shores opposite the wrecks, and Spain was able to organize some salvage, only to experience their other nemesis when pirates absconded with much of the recovered treasure. It is impossible to say how much of the 1715 Fleet treasure was saved in its time, or even how much was on board (as contraband could account for perhaps double the amount on the manifest); suffice to say the currently eight known wrecksites (some of which may be parts of the same ship) from present-day Melbourne down to Stuart (aptly called the “Treasure Coast”) have kept divers and beachcombers busy since at least the early 1960s, when Kip Wagner and the Real Eight Co. began organized salvage and instituted a State lease system that is still in place today. The first Royals, in fact, were found by Real Eight and offered at auction as early as 1964.

The coin we are offering here was recovered in August 1998, the find of a lifetime for diver Clyde Kuntz of the salvage vessel Bookmaker (captained by Greg Bounds), under a lease held by the Mel Fisher company , whose photo-certificate (“GRADE: One ++”) accompanies the coin. According to the November-December 1998 issue of Treasure Quest magazine, the cover of which features a photo of this coin, Clyde was working the “Corrigan’s” site , about five miles north of Vero Beach, when on the same day he found both this coin and another 8 escudos Royal dated 1698 (currently unique) that is now permanently housed in the State of Florida collection. The biggest single find of Royals came in the 2015 diving season, in which a staggering ten pieces (dated 1711, 1712 and 1715) were recovered under leases held by Queens Jewels, LLC (the current owner of the 1715-Fleet site leases). Subsequently, we appraised those coins for millions of dollars for Queens Jewels and the State of Florida, which gets a 20% cut of all finds.

The only other known 1713 example , reportedly found on the beach in the 1980s, made headlines in 1985 when it was sold at the January F.U.N. auction (Kurt Krueger) in Florida. The same coin sold in Switzerland in 1991 as part of the Emilio Ortiz collection. According to census information, that coin has not been graded, but we note that it was struck on a smaller flan (also slightly lower weight, at 26.84 grams) with slightly fewer peripheral details than the piece we offer here.

While any one of the Royals is a joy to behold, with full and well-struck details on big, round flans, in our 2015 appraisal we noted that there is actually a good bit of difference in quality (strike and condition) between all the known specimens, even within the same date, in addition to the differences in rarity. Anyone who has ever attempted striking a coin by hand knows that making coins like these requires great strength and dexterity. Hitting on dead center with full pressure on the entire canvas—without bouncing the hammer—is easier said than done. It is no exaggeration to say that a well-struck handmade coin demonstrates a level of skill far greater than what is required to make a beautiful milled coin. In fact, at least one researcher asserts instead that Mexican Royals must have been struck with a screw-press instead, using multiple pressings to achieve such completeness of detail. Also consider the dies: Each Royal die was specially prepared with as much care and aesthetics as the mint could muster, using the same punches available for regular issues but with greater attention paid to concatenation and placement, usually allowing for more ornamentation in the legends and around the inner details. The 1713 issue, for example, has strange X-shaped flowers that appear both as stops in the legend and as space-fillers in the four “corners” of the shield (an aspect of this date only). Presumably important and wealthy people (some would say the King himself) were depending on the mint to make these jewels as near to perfect as possible.

The twelve or thirteen known dates come in five basic types, most easily recognized by their styles of crosses:
Plain Cross: 1695 , 1698
Box-End Cross: 1702
Crosslet Cross: 1711, 1712, 1713
New Cross: 1714
New Cross with Bouquets: 1715, 1717, 1718 (if it exists), 1723, 1728/5, 1729
It should be noted that regular-issue 8 escudos also use these styles, in addition to two more types (used concurrently with others) that at present are NOT represented by any Royals:
Jeweled Cross: 1680-1699
Ornate-Tressure Cross: 1711-1712

While each date within the Crosslet-Cross type of Royals dated 1711-1713 is slightly different in execution, the basic design did not change and in fact marks the end of a rustic style replaced in 1714 with a vastly sharper and more polished design, which some believe can be traced to the implementation of press-type machinery. These post-1713 issues are also generally on smaller, thicker flans.

The 1713 we offer here—arguably finer than any of the known 1711’s and 1712’s and easily superior to the other known 1713—therefore represents the final perfection of the rustic style of the Crosslet-Cross type. Of course the complete lack of wear is a factor, but there is more to it than that: This coin is just SO WELL STRUCK that it glistens from every angle, its color changing from yellow to gold as it turns in the light, the exceptionally deep and skillful strike making sharp peaks out of every design element, with near-perfect centering (especially the obverse) and no doubling or weakness anywhere, all on a huge and essentially flawless flan that extends beyond the outer border of dots. This is best appreciated in hand, or at least in video, where movement reveals the flash of luster that so distinguishes this coin. Just as it has been up till now (in the Isaac Rudman numismatic cabinet), such a perfect specimen will be at home in any of the best coin collections currently being formed around the world, whether focused on colonials, U.S., world or even shipwreck. Mexican 8 escudos as a type are so rare that we have never offered one in our auctions before, and we are honored that our first is indeed one of the most beautiful coins we have ever offered. It will be hard to match this rarity and perfection for a long time.

Updated Census of Known Mexican 8 Escudos Royals by Date
Date King Assayer Quantity known
1695 Charles II L 1
1698 Charles II L 1
1702 Philip V J 7
1711 Philip V J 8
1712 Philip V J 4
1713 Philip V J 2
1714 Philip V J 9
1715 Philip V J 5
1717 Philip V J 1
1718 Philip V J 0
1723 Philip V J 1
1728/5 Phi.V/Louis I D 1
1729 Philip V R 1

_________________________
FOOTNOTES:

– As the table at the end of this article shows, only twelve dates are confirmed, with one more mentioned in references.

– Mel Fisher had worked with Real Eight from 1963 to 1972 and then moved to Key West to pursue salvage on the 1622 Fleet (Atocha and Santa Margarita). Real Eight maintained the 1715-Fleet leases until abandoning them in 1977. Mel Fisher resumed salvage on the 1715 Fleet in 1979. In 2010, Mel Fisher’s family sold the leases to Queens Jewels LLC, which manages salvage there today.

– The wrecksites of the 1715 Fleet are referred to by nicknames as opposed to the actual names of the ships themselves, because in most cases it is uncertain where each of the ships sank. “Corrigan’s” is named after 1950s beachcomber Hugh Corrigan, whose house fronted that stretch of beach.

– Amazingly, this other 1713 was struck from different dies from the present coin. In fact, most if not all of the non-unique dates exhibit multiple dies. Our theory is that the amount of striking pressure required to properly make these big coins with full and bold details caused the dies to break after only a few strikes, and probably there were lots of failed attempts that were just re-melted. While it seems like a waste of resources to make fresh dies to net just a few coins (or less!), consider that these were special issues commissioned by or for wealthy dignitaries who could afford the extra expense and didn’t need lots of coins.

– The single-known specimen of the date 1695, originally sold in the Ubilla-Echevez auction by Christensen in 1967, set a record in 2009 for the most ever paid for a Spanish American gold coin at close to $600,000.
The “bouquets” are floral-bouquet ornaments in the dimples of the tressures and appear only on Royals. They are not the same as the “daggers” in the same positions on the New Cross issues of 1714 and 1715.

– Researcher Philip Flemming points out that the Plain Cross was “aesthetically a better choice” for Royals than the Jeweled Cross, but why the Ornate-Tressure Cross was not used on Royals is a mystery (December 2016 issue of the U.S. Mexican Numismatic Association’s Journal).

– This table is adapted from Kent Ponterio’s preface to Ponterio and Associates’ Auction #108 on April 7-8, 2000. Kent listed only publicly known examples, with detailed information of their appearances. Our only updates to Kent’s work are the addition of ten 8 escudos Royals found in 2015 (seven 1711s, two 1712s and one 1715) and a correction to the 1728 (now recognized as 1728/5 and PHILIPPVS/LVDOVICVS).

– Spanish references by Calicó (Numismática española [2020] and La Onza [2004]) and Tauler (Oro Macuquino [2011]) do list the date 1718, but without photos or any other information. The whereabouts of any specimen(s) is unknown to us, so for now we treat it as quantity 0.

https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=lot&sid=4266&lot=487

Lote 487. Nueva clasificación / asignada erróneamente con anterioridad

https://auction.sedwickcoins.com/Mexico-City-Mexico-cob-8-reales-Royal-galano-1615-4F-very-rare-three-known-NGC-AU-details_i38817259

https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=lot&sid=4266&lot=490

Lote 490. Raro galano

Y muchas moneditas más, además de objetos de naufragio, joyas…Curiosa subasta. ¡Os invito a dar una vuelta y disfrutarla! Habrá que estar atentos a los precios de adjudicación.

Más asequible – menos exclusiva, además de muchas otras diferencias y/o características, es la subasta de noviembre en sala de Konros

https://auction.conros.ru/olive/816/flash/

Pocos oros a la venta; hay demanda – poca disponibilidad. Bastantes rublos y medios de plata, además de denominaciones menores

https://auction.conros.ru/lot/2669306/816/0/

Adjudicado en 155.000 rublos + comisión (+- 1.900 €)

Рубль 1723 года «В горностаевой мантии»

В 1723 году портрет на рублевых монетах меняется, причем дважды. Первый вариант — у нумизматов он получил прозвище «тигровик» – примечателен тем, что на нем латы царя прикрыты горностаевой мантией, а на груди — знаки ордена Св. Андрея Первозванного. В обрезе рукава вновь появляется знак ОК. Выделяют четыре типа лицевой стороны по наличию и размеру андреевского креста на груди.

Разновидности оборотной стороны различаются расположением букв легенды против i.

Гуртовая надпись – «Российский рубль Московского двора», по всей видимости, такое обозначение продукции московского Кадашевского двора связано с ожидаемым началом работы нового монетного двора в Санкт-Петербурге.

Легенда лицевой стороны – «Петр А (Алексеевич) Император и Самодержец Всероссийский», оборотной – «Монета новая цена рубль» и дата арабскими цифрами. Проба — 729, вес 28, 44 грамма.

96 копеек 1757

https://auction.conros.ru/lot/2669315/816/0/

Adjudicado en 160.000 rublos + comisión (+- 1.950 €)

96 копеек «Ливонез»

Следующий номинал является очень непривычным для российской системы денежного обращения, поскольку ориентирован не на десятеричную, талерную. Внешнеполитические успехи елизаветинского времени оставили свой след в двух региональных выпусках монет. Первый — это монеты для прибалтийских провинций Ливонии и Эстляндии.

Необычный номинал свидетельствует о попытке привязать русскую денежную систему к талерной, основанной на 12-кратном счете и привычной для населения провинций. На оборотных сторонах монет 96, 48 и 24 копейки в клювах орла на лентах подвешены гербы городов Риги и Ревеля (с 1917 года — Таллин).

Чеканились в Москве на Красном дворе петербургскими штемпелями работы Б. Скотта.

Лицевая сторона — портрет императрицы, оборотная — российский двуглавый орел с гербами Риги и Ревеля и надпись MONETA LIVOESTHONICA, цифра 96 и дата. Проба — 750, нормативный вес — 26,38 грамма, гурт — узор.

Por aquí os dejo los enlaces de las dos (2) últimas subastas en sala anteriores, para que comparéis

https://auction.conros.ru/clive/809/flash/

https://auction.conros.ru/clive/805/flash/

P.S. En próxima subasta de Vico, curioso 8 escudos platino 1776 – Lima, falsa de época

https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=lot&sid=4291&lot=538

Lot 538         Starting Price: 600 EUR  Minimum bid: 600 EUR

8 escudos. 1776. Lima. MI. Falsa de época en platino dorado. 27,1 g. Barrera-358. MBC+.

Abriendo la imagen en pestaña aparte se aprecian mejor los detalles

Yo Julia Denarios

Enlace a mi tienda en ebid. Iré subiendo más moneditas de mi colección

https://stores.ebid.net/moneditis

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Esta entrada se refiere al libro Yo, Julia de Santiago Posteguillo. Vaya por delante que voy “justito” en cuanto a conocimientos numismáticos de denarios, por lo que dejo en manos de las webs tesorillo.com y denarios.org las imágenes y datos aportados 🙂

El libro está estructurado en cinco (5) bloques, empezando por Cómodo

https://www.tesorillo.com/altoimperio/comodo/comodo.htm

continuando con Pértinax y Didio Juliano “los breves”

https://www.tesorillo.com/altoimperio/pertinax/pertinax.htm

http://www.denarios.org/imperio/index.asp?fuseaction=moneda&id_moneda=4760&id_busqueda=1435169

Marcus Didius Severus Iulianus
Didio Juliano (133 – 193) fue emperador en 193 durante 66 días.
Tras la muerte de Pertinax, la Guardia Pretoriana subastó el trono imperial entre los hombres más ricos e influyentes de Roma.
Didio Juliano se impuso a Tito Flavio Sulpiciano, suegro de Pertinax y por tanto peligroso para los pretorianos. El precio final por el trono se estipuló en 25.000 sestercios por soldado. Tras lo cual los pretorianos obligaron al Senado a nombrar emperador a Didio Juliano.
Tras unas semanas desde su proclamación como emperador, tres gobernadores de provincia, Clodio Albino, Pescennius Niger y Septimio Severo se rebelaron contra él.
Fue asesinado un día después de haber sido proclamado el nuevo emperador y por orden de este, Septimio Severo, el vencedor de la rebelión.

http://www.denarios.org/imperio/index.asp?fuseaction=contingutframes&id_emperador=3156

https://www.tesorillo.com/altoimperio/p_niger/p_niger.htm

 

https://www.tesorillo.com/altoimperio/clodio_albino/clodio_albino.htm

https://www.tesorillo.com/altoimperio/julia_domna/julia_domna.htm

https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septimio_Severo

https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julia_Domna

Como veis, poco detalle sobre cada uno de los personajes; leeros el libro…y disfrutadlo 😉

P.S. Ahora el falso…    https://www.tesorillo.com/altoimperio/d_clara/d_clara.htm

P.S.II Y otro denario falso; un Julia Domna   https://www.ebay.com/itm/293753145918

https://numismantigua.foroactivo.com/t3599-ltxod-05oaucsh-plata-romana-made-in-spain-con-certificado-de-falsedad

Efimok II / ефимок II

Enlace a mi tienda en ebid. Iré subiendo más moneditas de mi colección

https://stores.ebid.net/moneditis

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Aquí  https://moneditis.com/tag/efimok/ lo publicado hasta ahora en este blog al respecto

https://moneditis.com/2019/09/14/vuelta-al-cole/

https://moneditis.com/2018/12/05/efimok-ефимок-1655/

Y aquí otros dos (2) ejemplos

Russia Efimok 1655 Double Date Counterstamped on Zeland Thaler 1649; Silver, VF-XF        Ningún detalle en la descripción; ¿encapsulado?

https://katzauction.com/lots/view/1-3HZTSL/russia-efimok-1655-double-date

Russia 1 Rouble 1654 -1659 Overstruck Collectors Copy  Silver 25,3g.; Alexey Mikhailovich 1645-1663; VF

https://katzauction.com/lots/view/1-3HZTSH/russia-1-rouble-1654-1659-overstruck-collectors-copy

Resello sobre Patagón ¿falso? o resello falso o… En este si leemos el peso, muy por debajo de los 28 gramos y pico, pero poco más

¿Y si el primero mostrado fuera también falso?

P.S. Subasta RareCoins – Moscú  

https://ru.bidspirit.com/ui/catalog/auction/rarecoins/11424/1?lang=ru

Muchos lotes sin vender y bastantes lotes retirados (sólo en página rusa)

https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=sale&sid=4151&cid=&pg=2&so=1&search=&s=1

P.S.II Interesantes comentarios sobre falsificaciones en el mercado

Yo diría que hay que tener cuidado hasta en las subastas. Es verdad que son grandes profesionales, pero no se puede saber de todo.
Me gustaría citar un ejemplo reciente de una prestigiosa casa española que subastó en julio la moneda de la foto y se remató en 220 euros.
estados-unidos-1-dollar-1868-6172637-O.jpg

Para mí es una falsificación. Tiene detalles claros y conocidos como la “I” fantasma de la palabra América, o el reborde que se ve en la parte alta de la corona.
Pero si vemos determinadas letras como el hueco interno de la última “A” de América, nada tienen que ver.
Cuando están desgastadas es más difícil ver las cosas.
Aquí un aviso a navegantes de NGG con la foto de una falsificación:
40. 1868 Gold Dollar | NGC
39_1868 Gold Dollar_full-1.png

Y aquí la foto de una genuina:
1868-g-1-ms66-pcgs-the-6291409-O.jpg

Todo esto es mi opinión, por supuesto.

https://www.burbuja.info/inmobiliaria/threads/oro-y-plata-post-oficial.1307819/page-289

Yo he visto muchas veces monedas de 4 y de 8 escudos de oro por debajo de spot y tardar dias en venderse en repesca e incluso no venderse y volver a salir a la siguiente subasta, tambien muchas monedas tipo 100 escudos de isabel II no venderse a spot y quedar dias en repesca.

Yo me he llevado asi muchas monedas, de llevarme algo y decir ya que me llevo eso pues aprobecho y le meto algo mas a la factura para que me haga media con el envio.

Te hablo de hace un año, ahora mismo esta saliendo todo carisimo, es mejor ni mirar para no acabar picando como dice el otro compañero putabolsa.

Pero yo creo que ya fuera de que la gente quiera oro y plata hay otras razones por las que todo se esta vendiendo muy caro pues no es solo en metales esta pasando en muchos otros negocios.

Yo crio pajaros raros y algunos años me cuesta venderlos, este año han volado ( nunca mejor dicho ) mas caros que nunca y casi todos a pajarerias que son gente que nunca me compran a mis precios.

En moneda antigua los lotes de monedas se estan vendiendo a unos precios que da miedo mirar, no entiendo nada pues apenas tendra margen el que luego vaya a revender.

Entonces lo que yo pienso es lo siguiente, esto es un canto del cisne muerto, muchos negocios se estan viendo en las ultimas, con la mierda del virus no pueden aprovisionarse de material que en condiciones normales conseguirian a unos precios muy inferiores y ya en una ultima esperanza intentan comprar cosas al precio que sea aunque el margen sea ridiculo por que estan los pobres que no saben ya ni que hacer para poder vender algo y conservar el negocio.

Esta es mi opinion sobre lo que esta pasando ahora mismo con todo en general.

https://www.burbuja.info/inmobiliaria/threads/oro-y-plata-post-oficial.1307819/page-290

Yo de esto se mucho mas que nadie del foro, no por nada si no por que estuve muy metido en este mundo. Estuve muy cerca de montar una numismatica, tenia ya el local incluso buscado, era una antigua joyeria que ya tenia las medidas de seguridad casi al dia y no requeria inversion.

No puedo contar ni la mitad de lo que se, en primer lugar por que literalmente me juego como poco una buena paliza o que me llame alguien que vea esto y me diga cuatro cosas, tampoco tengo ganas de historias con nadie.

Pero dentro de lo que se puede contar vamos a contar cuatro cosas muy por encima.

En primer lugar en moneda griega tengo varios conocidos muy metidos en este mundo que me aseguran que un tanto por ciento acojonante, hablo de mas del 80% de las monedas de calidad que se venden hoy en dia no son originales, estando yo en convenciones han llegado Italianos con maletines cargados de copias entre 60 y 200 euros de tetradacmas que eran identicos a los originales, enseñaban fotos con troqueles de tetradracmas y de otras monedas y las fotos eran de habitaciones enormes llenas de punta a punta de troqueles.

Estando yo con una mesa montada de moneda antigua en varias convenciones de monedas he visto como en los stand mas cercanos que eran de reconocidos copistas y que vendian su material como copias llegaban gente importante en horarios de poco transito y se hacian tratos., no eran gente top pero si eran gente que podrian estar en segunda division por poner un ejemplo.

A mi me han ofrecido comprar aureos a 1000 euros que tenian ese precio por ser unicos, es decir, se hace un aureo, se rompe el troquel y unicamente queda tu aureo, esto tambien se hace con denarios y con otro tipo de monedas, esos aureos luego con un certificado pueden llegar a valer cinco veces mas como poco, si es un aureo especial puede llegar a los 30.000 o 50.000 euros, un denario imagina que te lo venden a 300 o 400 pero ese denario vale 4000 o 5000 euros. Esto eran gente que llegaban con maletines llenos de este tipo de moneda, normalmente era un italiano el que aparecia con estos maletines, italiano diferente al de los tetradracmas.

En moneda medieval española hay varios especialistas y sus copias en caso de que quieran hacerlas unicas son imposibles de detectar, la unica manera de poder detectarlas es que se hagan varias monedas del mismo cuño y conforme van saliendo al mercado darte cuenta de que son clones acuñados, si fueran fundidos si pueden llegar a reconocerse por un ojo experto.

Casi todos los talleres estan por el sur de españa, casi todos estan operando de forma legal, pero hay otros que son como las reliquias, sabes que estan, sabes que esisten pero no hay manera de saber quien tiene ese taller, por ejemplo el famoso taller de las cabezas de san juan, nunca he llegado a saber nada de su dueño, debe de ser un tio muy listo con un bajo perfil y con clientes ya buscados, se sabe que esiste desde hace años pero nadie sabe nada de el.

Luego estan los bulgaros, especialistas en moneda romana y en arqueologia, casi todo lo que se vende hoy en dia es de de ellos, hacen entalles en piedras naturales que venden a 40 euros que luego pueden como poco triplicar su valor con un certificado.

Para el que tenga interes os dejo esto, es muy interesante, haceros una idea de que con la moneda pasa lo mismo que con lo se cuenta aqui, estos hablan de arqueologia pero en realidad es casi el mismo mundillo.

https://www.burbuja.info/inmobiliaria/threads/oro-y-plata-post-oficial.1307819/page-291

Estoy de acuerdo con lo que Notrabajo34 explica: el negocio del falsificador está en el margen, y el oro deja poco margen a no ser que falsifiques monedas de poco peso y gran valor numismático, como áureos o monedas medievales. Yo he visto alguna moneda de 8 escudos falsa, pero son la excepción, y alguna catalogada como falsa de época, que, efectivamente, era falsa, aunque es dificil saber si “de época” o elaborada en los años 70 del siglo pasado.
El gran negocio de la falsificación está en falsificar monedas de plata con alta demanda numismática, especialmente tetradracmas y reales de 8 (tanto macuquinos como de cordoncillo), y bronces romanos, concretamente sestercios.

https://www.burbuja.info/inmobiliaria/threads/oro-y-plata-post-oficial.1307819/page-292

Junk Silver / Plata Basura

Enlace a mi tienda en ebid. Iré subiendo más moneditas de mi colección

https://stores.ebid.net/moneditis


(Este 1/2 dollar Barber no es exactamente junk silver 🙂 )

Junk silver is an informal term used in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia for any silver coin that is in fair or cull condition and has no numismatic or collectible value above the bullion value of the silver it contains. Such coins are popular among people seeking to invest in silver, particularly in small amounts. The word “junk” refers only to the value of the coins as collectibles and not to the actual condition of the coins; junk silver is not necessarily scrap silver.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junk_silver

Resumen de la trayectoria de desaparición de las monedas de oro y plata (pérdidas, fundición, retirada de circulación…)

“Silver and gold coins have always had their own special threats to survival in terms of melting. The gold recall order of 1933 resulted in massive amounts of gold coins being turned in for melting. While it was not the only time gold coins were ever melted, the Mint reported that over 39 percent of all the double eagles ever produce were melted and some 37 percent of all the gold eagles.”

“…silver coins have faced even more periods of destruction than gold. Although the production of both the gold eagle and silver dollar were suspended in 1804 it was the silver dollar that was attracting the most notice as a coin being exported by bullion speculators. In the early 1850s there were virtually no silver coins in circulation as bullion value exceeded face value. The amount of silver being put in these denominations was lowered in 1853, but that meant coins still unreleased were melted and privately held coins of the older and heavier weights were also subject to melting.

With rising silver prices, the temptation to melt silver coins has always been present. When silver soared in the late 1970s on its way to a record $50 price in early 1980, the temptation to melt became more of an imperative and tons of silver coins of all types were destroyed. Refineries were backed up for months. Prices paid for silver coins actually fell far below bullion value during this frantic period. At its widest, 90 percent silver coins worth 36 times face value were bringing only 24 times face.”

“Most of the melting took place in 1979 and 1980, when silver bullion soared to an all-time high of $50 an ounce. At that point, common-date silver coins were worth far more as metal than as money or collectibles. Even scarcer items could be melted at a profit.”

“Those coin melts probably hurt us more than we’ll ever know,” said Leon E. Hendrickson, proprietor of Silver Towne in Winchester, Ind., a dealership that has dealt extensively in bullion-related coins over the years. “They destroyed a lot of our `seed coins’ — the coins that got people started — and put a lot of collectors out of business.”

Hendrickson calculated that during 1979 and 1980, Silver Towne alone processed “thousands of bags” of silver coins that were destined for refiners’ melting pots. He pointed out, however, that while that period marked the peak of the great silver melts, it was really the culmination of a process that had started more than a decade earlier, for silver coins had been melted — surreptitiously at first and later more openly — since the 1960s.

He noted, too, that from the hobby’s standpoint, the loss of silver coins actually took place in two distinct stages: first, their withdrawal from circulation in the mid-1960s; and second, the melting itself. And, while the melting made the losses permanent, the physical withdrawal already had caused the hobby grievous harm.

“Coen estimated that of all the silver coins produced by the United States Mint, only about one-quarter survived the ongoing melts. He confided that he himself sold refiners $400 million worth of fabricated silver, mostly silver coins, during the one-year period from July 1, 1979 to June 30, 1980 — “and,” he commented, “other guys were doing the same thing.”

“With Franklin halves, for instance, I’d hate to say how big a majority were melted, but I know the percentage was high.”

On the contrary, key coins were almost always kept. And this led to one of the most fascinating — and also most significant — after-effects of the melts: a total rearrangement of relative rarity levels in every modern series of silver U.S. coins.

“Essentially,” Carr observed, “the key coins now are common, since they’re the ones that were saved — and the formerly common coins are now rare, since most of them were melted.

“Take Roosevelt dimes, for example. The 1949-S and the 1955-P, D and S are probably the commonest coins in the series today in circulated condition, whereas before the melts they were the scarcest. Being worth a premium, they were saved. In circulated condition, the new key may be the 1946-D or something like that — something where almost every available piece ended up being melted.”

“Forman, for one, questioned whether market analysts will ever really know, with any degree of certainty, just how many silver coins remain and how they break down by date and mint mark. In short, he didn’t believe — and still doesn’t today — that future buyers and sellers will ever again enjoy the security once provided by meaningful mintage figures.”

https://www.numismaticnews.net/article/news/general/where-coins-went-not-always-known-2

Referencia comerciantes (dealer sheet) de la empresa norteamericana Upstate coins utilizada por multitud de negocios al otro lado del atlántico relacionados con moneditas y/o metales preciosos. Actualización diaria.

https://trading.upstatecoins.com/wp-content/uploads/dealer.pdf

Monedas y precios

https://www.silveragecoins.com/es/list?list=4

Corta historia de la historia monetaria USA

https://coinsweekly.com/the-monetary-history-of-the-usa/

 

http://www.coinflation.com/

https://www.pcgs.com/news/after-the-melts-whats-left-in-silver-coins

“When silver hit $50 an ounce, I would say that 98 percent of the silver coins in existence were committed to smelting houses,” he confided. “If the price had been maintained, most everything would have been lost.

“Fortunately,” he added, “the refiners had a two- to three-month backlog, and as silver dropped in value they withdrew a lot of the coins. Even so, it’s scary just thinking of what might have happened.”

P.S. https://coinsweekly.com/how-to-detect-counterfeits-at-all-times-part-1-swiss-vreneli-coins/

Falsificaciones varias de la moneda de oro bullion 20 francos suizos oro vreneli

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vreneli

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